- "I've played many roles. Worn many masks. Father. Husband. Brother. Teacher. But only one was summoned back—Destroyer!"
- ―Garmadon to Lloyd in "True Potential"
When Lord Garmadon initially appeared in sets in 2011. His head is black and demonic with red eyes, an opened mouth with white teeth, and various dark metallic/silver lines on his head. His torso is also black with printing on it reminiscent of ribs, as well as a purple belt above his waist. His arms, hands, legs, and hips are also black and left unprinted. He wears a silver samurai helmet with a bone on it.
In 2012 Garmadon was redesigned. His helmet is gunmetal/iron and also has a white bone in it, and the helmet has been remoulded to feature a longer visor. He has the same face as last year's minifigure, with slight modifications. Rather than having one torso as his previous variation and most other minifigures, Garmadon has two. His first one is slightly smaller than usual and has dark grey armour moulded onto it which is fit to go over much of the lower torso also. Though much of it is covered by the armour, the torso underneath is the same as his previous variation. The black legs now have printing depicting the purple belt extending from the torso into a knot and split into two sashes.
In 2013 Lord Garmadon still included the same head, torsos, and legs in the 2012 variation but was wearing the "Helmet of Shadows". This helmet is similar to Garmadon's previous helmet in 2012 but has the Stone Army symbol on it in black instead of the white bone and also includes a black visor that makes his face look similar to when he became possessed by the Overlord. However, in the TV show he also grew claws on his hands and feet and grew wings allowing him to fly. The minifig has normal hands and legs and does not feature wings, and lacks elongated snout Garmadon developed when possessed in the TV series.
In the TV show episode Rise of the Spinjitzu Master he morphed into a gigantic black dragon, due to the shift in the balance between good and evil. This is because the Overlord was originally a dragon. Afterwards, Garmadon was shown in a black robe lined with gray with a white shirt underneath it and a golden dragon decoration on the back.
In 2014, Garmadon was introduced into his human form known as "Sensei Garmadon". He included a gray hairpiece, a new face, and a green robe with a tacky coat over it.
In 2015, Garmadon has a new outfit that is familiar to the 2014 variant; he has still white sleeves, yellow hand, grey hair and the same face print. His chest is strikingly similar to the first version with the exception of the added gold, and that the only green part is his belt. On his back is a visible purple snake tattoo, which is the mark of the anacondrai.
In 2017 several versions of Garmadon were introduced for The LEGO Ninjago Movie line.
In 2018 a new Garmadon figure was released, based on his helmeted movie design. The figures were virtually identical except that the upper torso featured alternate printing. This versions featured cracked armor with missing pieces that exposed Garmadon's rib bones and purple slime, depicting his undead nature. In the series, a version of this form later appeared with an Oni mask head with Garmadon's facial features on it and short black horns. The normal version could summon purple energy daggers, while the Oni form wielded a staff identical to that wielded by the Omega.
In the Video-Games
Lord Garmadon is also playable character in LEGO Battles: Ninjago with his first variation and is unlocked after 100% completion of the game is reached.
In Skeleton Story Mode, he is playable in "Shadow Puppets." In Ninja Story Mode, he is an enemy in "Shadow Play" and "The Confrontation." However, he cannot be attacked in "Shadow Play".
Sensei Garmadon appears in LEGO Ninjago: Nindroids, playable in the level "Two Brothers".
Many years ago, Garmadon lived at the Monastery with his brother, Wu, as they were the sons of The First Spinjitzu Master. The brothers were the best of friends during their childhood. However, one day when the two brothers were practicing with their katanas, Garmadon managed to disarm Wu and accidentally flung his brother's sword over the monastery walls. Garmadon and Wu both knew that their father would be upset about this, Garmadon opted for them to go over and retrieve it, but Wu refused to do it, prompting Garmadon to chide him for it, "Never put off for tomorrow, what could be done today," before hopping over to retrieve his brother's sword. As Garmadon reached for the blade, he was bitten by The Great Devourer and the poisonous venom consumed his soul. After his father’s death, the two brothers were left in charge of protecting The Four Golden Weapons, and they became an authoritative, unstoppable, and dominant fighting force against evil, including fighting the four-armed Samukai and banishing him down to the Underworld. But the venom remained within him, slowly turning the proud and selfless warrior into the the Dark Lord over the years.
Years after Garmadon was bitten by The Great Devourer, he met Misako, and both he and Wu became enamored by her. Later, Garmadon left the Monastery to seek a darker means of guidance, and became a pupil of Chen, who taught him dark magic and to win at all costs, no matter who he hurt. Chen even convinced him to forge Wu’s love letter to Misako as his own, which resulted in her falling in love with him instead of Wu. He also fought in the Serpentine War with his brother Wu, and it was stated by Garmadon that it was then that Chen turned against his own and joined the Serpentine.
After the war, Garmadon and Wu returned home, and Chen was left on his island where he was banished. At some point Garmadon, Wu, and the Elemental Alliance were forced to contend with Acronix and Krux, the Time Twins, and succeeded in taking away their Time-based powers. Using blades forged from chronosteel by Kai and Nya's parents Ray and Maya, Wu and Garmadon were able to strip the Time Twins of their powers, which they then used to open a vortex. The brothers hurled the Time Blades into the vortex to prevent them falling into the wrong hands, only for Acronix and Krux to jump in after them.
Decades later, Garmadon and Misako, having married, had Lloyd. They were a family for a while, as the poison took its toll on Garmadon and turned him fully evil. Eventually he attempted to steal the Golden Weapons and remake Ninjago (world) in his own twisted image, but Wu stood in his way. A battle ensued between the brothers, and Garmadon was banished to the boundless realm of the Underworld, just as Samukai had been. However, he vowed to return to Ninjago and seize the weapons and gain ultimate power. To start off, Garmadon used Spinjitzu to defeat Samukai in a duel and declared himself the new King of the Underworld and commander-in-chief of the Skulkin army. A decade later, Garmadon finally set his schemes in motion and sent Samukai and his army to Ninjago to wreak havoc and search for the weapons. Sensei Wu, after acknowledging the presence of danger in Ninjago, searched for four brave ninja, Kai, Cole, Zane, and Jay, to defeat all evil and fulfill the prophecy of Ninjago.
Escape from the Underworld
Garmadon first appears to Kai in the form of a shadowy being, who threatens to kill his sister Nya, who had been kidnapped by Samukai previously, if he did not retrieve the Sword of Fire. Fortunately, Sensei Wu arrived and sacrificed himself for the sake of Ninjago by apprehending his brother's plans and traveling with the Sword of Fire to the Underworld. Garmadon summoned Samukai, who already collected the other three weapons while the other Ninja were sleeping, to bring the weapons back to the Underworld, where he and Wu battle for the weapons. The Ninja soon arrived and performed the Tornado of Creation, defeating the Skulkin and allowing passage to Sensei in Garmadon's throne room. When they arrived, however, Samukai turned against Garmadon, tired of being his puppet, and took all four of the weapons, wanting to reclaim his title as King. But Garmadon simply laughed and states his plan has worked, right before Samukai is destroyed and turned into a Vortex having not been able to handle all the Weapons' power simultaneously. Garmadon then traveled through the portal to escape, again vowing his return after growing powerful enough to possess the weapons.
Shortly later, the ninja learn that at some unknown point Garmadon fathered a son with Misako named Lloyd, who served as a minor antagonist for the Ninja by releasing the Serpentine from their tombs in order to take over Ninjago for his father. However, in Never Trust a Snake Lloyd repented and joined his uncle. As the battles unfolded between the Serpentine and the Ninja, Garmadon trained in an nether-worldly dimension to become powerful enough to possess all four golden weapons. When Lloyd was kidnapped by the Serpentine, Wu left the ninja to search for his brother, and bought a magical tea that opened a portal to the alternative world. Upon entering it, Sensei finally finds his corrupted brother with four arms, who says, "Hello, brother. What took you so long?" Sensei Wu tried to inform Lord Garmadon about the escaped Serpentine, but Garmadon decided that it was time to fight using four weapons, one for each arms, in offense against Wu. After seeing that Wu's spinjitzu was too strong for him, he summoned three mud monsters to trap and kill Wu, but while Wu was being absorbed by the monsters he, in his struggle for survival told Garmadon about Lloyd's capture by the Serpentine. When Garmadon heard this, he decided to save Wu and together they traveled out of the netherworld through the Mountain Of Madness.
Garmadon then moved onto Destiny's Bounty with Wu and the ninja where he was mistrusted, especially by Kai, and the two got into a shove fight. After finding out that the third Fangblade was hidden at the Fire Temple, Sensei Wu sent Garmadon to get the golden weapons, but Kai assumed he was trying to steal them which sparked another fight that had to be broken up by Wu. They arrived at the temple just in time to ambush the Serpentine. Garmadon caught the glimpse of his son Lloyd imprisoned and was filled with rage and attempted to save Lloyd, but soon failed. Despairing for Lloyd as the entire volcano became unstable and blocked him off from Lloyd and Kai. When the Fire Ninja tried to go for the fang blade before Pythor could escape. He succeeded and it landed on the edge of the lava, while Lloyd's small island began to melt. Torn between retrieving the Fangblade and saving Lloyd, Kai then went for Lloyd and escaped, finally unlocking his true potential. After departing the mountain, the team realized that Lloyd was the Green Ninja and now instead of just brother against brother, it was son against father.
Lord Garmadon later attempted to steal computer information from Destiny's Bounty's computer mainframe while the Ninjas and Wu went into the Serpentine's hideout to steal the three fangblades while Pythor was away getting the last one. Garmadon was caught in the act by his son, who was angry at his father for doing it while everyone else was risking their lives. It was at this moment that Garmadon despairingly admits to Lloyd that he was evil due to The Great Devourer's venom that runs through his veins, and that it was out of his very control to be good. Lloyd declares that he hates his father for abandoning him all this time during his childhood, and tells Garmadon to return to wherever it was he went to and to never return again. Garmadon goes to the Underworld to rally the Skulkin again, and leads them to the Serpentine hideout to defeat the Serpentine and free Wu, Nya, and the ninja. Lord Garmadon fights Pythor, and the Ninjas steal the four fang blades and return to their ship to escape. Lord Garmadon leaves The Destiny's Bounty after rescuing the team, telling Lloyd that his purpose for coming back was to make sure that his son was safe, and that Lloyd was now safe with the Ninja and his uncle. Garmadon said that Lloyd was a good boy and will soon become a great man, and that even though they may be on different sides of virtue now, Garmadon will always be proud of his son.
After Pythor has stole back the Fang Blades and has summoned the Great Devourer, Lord Garmadon takes the Golden Weapons when the Ninja fail to defeat it and uses their combined strength to destroy the Great Devourer, finally taking his vengeance on the snake for corrupting him as a child and saving Ninjago from its destruction. Garmadon soon disappears with the weapons.
When Garmadon returns with the weapons at last in his clutches, he plans to destroy Wu and the ninja to keep Lloyd from being trained and fulfilling his destiny. He rallies the Serpentine and they recreate Destiny's Bounty, which was destroyed in the fight with the devourer, into the "Black Bounty" which they use to fly to the birthplace of the golden weapons, the Golden Peaks, and fuse them together into one mega-weapon.
While trying to use the new weapon to destroy the Ultra Dragon, he instead resurrected Captain Soto and his pirate crew, who commanded Destiny's Bounty centuries before, as the weapon can only create and not destroy. Weakened by using the weapon, Garmadon and the Serpentine were locked up by the pirates until they are defeated by the ninja.
Trying to overcome the weapon's ability to only create, Garmadon comes up with the idea to create evil duplicates of the ninja, who are defeated by not only the ninja, but Lloyd's former classmates from Darkley's Boarding School for Bad Boys. He then tries to sabotage the ninjas' attempts to keep Grand Sensei Dareth's Mojo Dojo from being destroyed by entering against them in a competition. He attempts to stop them by sending Serpentine to attack and creating a crevice in the ground, but is once again beaten and the police even tried to arrest him. Garmadon then attempted to reawaken the Grundal, but is interrupted by the ninja and the process seemingly fails and he instead made Kai, Cole, Zane, and Jay children. The Grundal was reawakened and the ninja attempted to fight it but found that they were too short to perform spinjitzu. Wu and Nya purchased "Tomorrows Tea" to return the ninja and the Grundal to their proper ages.
Most recently, Garmadon and the Serpentine attempted to rebuild their city of Ouroboros. When the ninja arrive, Garmadon uses the mega-weapon to open up a vortex to change time and prevent the ninja from ever becoming ninja. He foils the Skulkin's kidnap of Nya, which was Kai's motivation to join Wu, so the ninja from the future do so themselves to give past Kai a prompt to train. When they reach their journey to the Fire Temple, both Garmadons battle both Kais and the other ninja from the future which results in the destruction of the Mega-Weapon and they return to the future, where the Mega-Weapon is still seemingly destroyed.
The Stone Army
Shortly after the Mega-Weapon was destroyed, Lord Garmadon thought made another plan to destroy the ninja. He remembers the dark island mentioned in Captain Soto's log, from back when the pirates took over their ship. He, along with the Serpentine generals, sets out in a Rattle-copter to find the dark island. Annoyed, Skales tells him that he has gone mad, and that there is no land outside of Ninjago. The other generals are finally convinced that they need a new leader, so when Garmadon is distracted, Skales pushes him out of the Rattle-Copter, leaving him stranded in the ocean. Skales then makes himself the new Serpentine King, replacing Lord Garmadon.
Later, Garmadon washes up on the shore of an tropical island. Once he wakes up, he is greeted by the Overlord. The Overlord tells him it was his destiny to arrive on the island, and leads Garmadon to an ancient stone, with four handles. Garmadon pulls all four handles at once, and the dark island resurfaces from the bottom of the ocean.
Back in Ninjago, Skales leads the Serpentine in his plan to destroy Ninjago City, but they stumble upon a tomb filled with Stone Warriors. The Stone Warriors lock the Serpentine up, then leave to find their master, he who wears the helmet of shadows. The Overlord leads Garmadon to the Helmet of Shadows, and Garmadon takes control of the Stone Army. With guidance from the Overlord, Garmadon instructs his army to build the ultimate weapon, consisting of dark matter. The Weapon is designed to transform whatever it targets into Garmadon's evil image. Using the dark island as his base, Garmadon is seemingly unstoppable. Once the ninja arrive, a war on the island breaks out. Garmadon realizes he will have to fight his son soon, but he doesn't want to.
At one point, the stone army captured Misako, Garmadon's wife, whom Garmadon has not seen since before he was cast into the Underworld. She tells him that Lloyd does not want to fight, which both comforts and scares Garmadon. Garmadon is ashamed of his evil ways, but still invites her to rule Ninjago by his side. Misako lies and tells him that she accepts, but she steals the Helmet of Shadows from him, leaving him angry and hurt.
When the ultimate weapon, Garmatron is complete, Lord Garmadon leads his troops to the edge of the island, and aims the weapon at Ninjago. Lloyd, Sensei Wu, and Misako arrive and tell him to stop. Garmadon tells them that fate has turned his son, wife, and brother against him, and turning them evil is the only way for his family to be together.
Sensei Wu tells him that the Overlord is using him, and that if he fires the weapon, the Overlord will be released. The Overlord insists that Garmadon ignore him and fire the weapon anyway, so Garmadon decides the Overlord is right, and fires the weapon at Jamanakai village. The balance is then shifted, and the Overlord is freed. The Overlord posses Lord Garmadon's body, and he transforms into an evil, scaly figure with claws, sharp teeth, a tail, and a head resembling a dinosaur.
The heroes realize the "Dark Lord" in the green ninja prophecy was not talking about Garmadon, but about the Overlord. Lloyd begins his fight with the Overlord, trying to tell his father to regain control over his body. Garmadon fights back, telling the Overlord that he will not hurt his son, but the Overlord wins, and nearly kills Lloyd. Still possessing Garmadon, the Overlord, the stone army, and evil Nya teleport to Ninjago City, leaving Lloyd on the island with a broken leg.
Later, the Overlord transforms Garmadon's body into his "True Form". The "True form" resembles a gigantic black dragon. When the ninja arrive in Ninjago City, everyone (Except for Dareth) has been transformed into Garmadon's image. The Helmet of Shadows falls off of Garmadon's head when he turns into a dragon, because it is far too small. Dareth finds the helmet, and takes control of the stone army.
Lloyd battles the Overlord, and wins, transforming everything in Garmadon's image back to good. Lloyd is upset because his father's body is missing. But they find him shortly after that, only he is not the Garmadon they once knew. Garmadon is now transformed to look like his original self (Before cast into the underworld) only much older. Every ounce of evil was drained out of Garmadon, making him good again. His family runs to him, and he is finally reunited with the people he loves.
In Season 3, Lord Garmadon renames himself "Sensei Garmadon" and vows to live nonviolently to make up his cruelness as the Dark Lord.
In Art of the Silent Fist, Garmadon opens up a dojo and teaches the ninja, how to use the Silent Fist. Later, he and Lloyd planned to work together to escape from the Overlord's systems. They borrow one of Nya's cars and run off. MechDragon, an evil dragon built by the Digital Overlord, goes after them. Later, the ninja put the Techno Blades in the Ninjago Power Source, shutting down the Nindroids and the MechDragon. The two of them keep moving, hoping the Overlord is gone for good.
In Blackout, they make it to some mountains, were Sensei Garmadon teaches Lloyd how to move rocks and boulders. When they come across a broken bridge, Garmadon tells Lloyd to use boulders to make a new one, but Lloyd ignores him and uses the Golden Dragon to make a bridge. Soon, Garmadon falls off the mountain, but Lloyd makes a giant hand made of rocks and saves his father.
In The Curse of the Golden Master, they were hiding away in the forests. After Tech Wu ambushed them along with some Nindroids, Garmadon was defeated and was thrown into the ocean. Pythor and Wu then kidnap Lloyd and take him away.
In Enter the Digiverse Garmadon appeared in Borg Tower disguised as a Nindroid, renouncing his way of nonviolence in order to fight for his son. He fought Tech Wu on a crane outside the tower until the system was rebooted. He was then seen communicating with Lloyd along with the others.
In Codename: Arcturus, he was with Wu, Zane and Pixal in Borg Tower. He later went to the Lost City of Ouroboros with them and watched Arcturus launch into space.
In The Void, he was shown with Wu, Pixal, and Nya in Borg Tower. He was escaping with them when Pythor and the Nindroid's return.
Tournament of Elements
In The Corridor of Elders he sacrificed himself to the Cursed Realm, in order to awaken the Anacondrai General's spirits and bring an end to Chen's army.
Garmadon appears in episode 54, Curseworld Part II. When Lloyd was sent to the Curse Realm by one of The Preeminent's feelers, he meets Garmadon, trapped by chains. Garmadon tell's Lloyd not to give up, that he is the green ninja by the color of his heart but not mask, also that Garmadon will always be with him no matter what will happen. Then Garmadon gives Lloyd his robes. But after the Preeminent was killed by Nya, so was Garmadon.
Hands of Time
In Pause and Effect Garmadon was one of a number of figures from Wu's past who appeared to torment him in his nightmares, as Wu continued to blame himself for Garmadon's fall to evil. Kai and Nya later had the chance to fight alongside young Garmadon when the Time Twins and their Vermillion warriors traveled into the past using their Iron Doom.
Sons of Garmadon
In The Oni and the Dragon Mystake reveals that the Sons of Garmadon seek the three Oni masks in order to revive Garmadon, but in a darkened state bereft of his former light. She also reveals that Garmadon inherited his innate darkness from the Oni themselves through his father.
In season nine Garmadon-now going by Emperor Garmadon-rules over Ninjago while Lloyd and Nya lead a resistance force.
He was eventually defeated and imprisoned, but warned Lloyd that the Oni would come to Ninjago.
March of the Oni
Garmadon later summoned Lloyd to his cell at Kryptarium Prison, where he warned him of the coming threat and insisted that only by releasing Garmadon would Ninjago stand a chance. Lloyd refused, but Garmadon was confident he would return and was later proven right, as the entire Ninja team came to collect him following the fall of Ninjago City to the Oni. Garmadon proved a troublesome passenger aboard the Destiny's Bounty 3.0, and seems to lack many of his past memories. He puts forward the plan to halt the Oni invasion by destroying the Realm Crystal, and reluctantly accepts Lloyd's help in carrying it out.
After fighting with the Ninja to renew his conflict-fueled powers, Garmadon entered the city with Lloyd, and explained that the petrified citizens were in a deep sleep. He and Lloyd then confronted a pair of Oni outside Borg Tower, with Garmadon saving Lloyd twice but only for the sake of the mission. The pair then confronted the Omega in the high security vault where the crystal was kept. When asked why he, an Oni himself, would fight for Ninjago, Garmadon claimed to wish to destroy it himself; when asked why he had not already done so, he uncomfortably regarded Lloyd and replied "It's complicated."
Garmadon was able to keep the Omega busy long enough for Lloyd to destroy the crystal, but Garmadon's theory as to it stopping the Oni was proved wrong. Fortunatley, he and Lloyd located the armor of the Golden Master, which they both recognized, and were able to use it to repel the Oni. After being saved by P.I.X.A.L. and brought back aboard the Bounty, Garmadon struggled to understand the Ninja's grief at the apparent loss of Cole in the fact of their important mission. He later questioned a civilian, Vinny, and was surprised to hear that more important than survival were the things worth living for.
When the Oni came to the Monastery of Spinjitzu, Garmadon fought alongside the Ninja, Wu, and Faith of the Dragon Hunters. He proved a formidable opponent for the Oni, singling the Omega out but eventually finding his powers checked. Garmadon responded by fully embracing his Oni side, gaining a demonic, horned appearance and a staff identical to the Omega's. However, according to the Omega, Garmadon had a hope to understand and be like humans that weakened his Oni powers. As such, Garmadon reluctantly joined in forming a Tornado of Creation to destroy the Oni; with the victory achieved, Garmadon departed for parts unknown.
Secrets of Forbidden Spinjitzu
In "Questing for Quests", Garmadon's name comes up as the Ninja discuss whether there are any active villains left in Ninjago. He is the only one that they are aware of, but they note that he hasn't caused any trouble since they last saw him six months previously.
In The LEGO Ninjago Movie, Garmadon is the father of Lloyd Garmadon also known as the Green ninja, who always help protect the city. He has a Huge Shark army, wich consists of people dressed as sharks, crabs, fish, puffers and octopi.
Gallery of Variants
- The reason for him being evil in the first place was because he was bitten by a baby Great Devourer.
- Robo Foot Ninja from Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles reuses his four arms chest piece.
- In episode 7 "Tick Tock", Garmadon's face and hair has the same look as his son Lloyd Garmadon.
- Master Chen was Garmadon's sensei when he sought a darker means of guidance, and taught him dark magic before he turned against his own kind during the serpentine war.
- He has a snake tattoo on his back from his training with Master Chen.
- When Garmadon was being trained by Master Chen, his appearance looked like his son except he had brown hair and had different robes.
- In "Day of the Dragon" he turns into Anacondrai due to having an Anacondrai tattoo on his back.
- In "Corridor of Elders" he banished himself to the Cursed Realm in order to awaken the Anacondrai Generals spirits and bring an end to Master Chen's army, as he and his worshipers were sent to Cursed Realm.
- He is the 4th Ninjago protagonist to get turn temporarily into a snake. The first 2 having to be Jay's parents, the third being Jay and the last being Skylor.
- In " Day of the Dragon" seconds after Clouse got banished to the cursed realm, he reveals he always hated magic.
- 70505 Temple of Light (Possesed variant)
- 70725 Nindroid MechDragon (Sensei Garmadon)
- 70750 Ninja DB X (Anacondrai tattoo)
- 70608 Master Falls (Jungle Movie variant)
- 70612 Green Ninja Mech Dragon (Movie variant)
- 70613 Garma Mecha Man (Movie variant)
- 70617 Temple of the Ultimate Ultimate Weapon (Jungle Movie variant)
- 70631 Garmadon's Volcano Lair (Movie variant)
- 70656 Garmadon, Garmadon, GARMADON! (Movie variant)
- 71019 The LEGO Ninjago Movie Series (Three variants)
- 70643 Temple of Resurrection (4 armed variant)
- 70657 Ninjago City Docks (Movie variant)
- 70658 Oni Titan (4 armed variant)
- 70664 Spinjitzu Lloyd vs. Garmadon (4 armed classic variant)
- 70679 The Ultra Dragon (4 armed classic variant)
- LEGO Ninjago Magazine Special Edition: Ninjago: Legacy (4 armed classic variant)
- LEGO Club Magazine Issue 1 2011 - Lessons of the Dojo! (mentioned)
- LEGO Club Magazine Issue 1 2014 - "Battle in the Skies"
- Ninjago: Masters of Spinjitzu
- Pilot Episodes
- Season 1
- Season 2
- Season 3
- Season 4
- Season 5
- "Curseworld, Part II"
- Season 7
- Season 8