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Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài]; Wu pronunciation: [zɑ̃.hɛ]) is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of China, the largest city in China by population, and the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017. It is a global financial centre and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea.
As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favorable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanjing and 1844 Treaty of Huangpu allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly the Occident), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. It has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by market capitalization.
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, and museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.
The first building from the left (in the front) is the Chenghuangmiao Temple, a temple devoted to traditional Chinese deities. The first building (in the back) is the Longhua Temple, a temple devoted to the Maitreya Buddha. The second building from the left is the HSBC Building, former headquarters of the HSBC Shanghai branch and current headquarters of the Shanghai Pudong Development Bank. The third building (in the front) is the Shanghai Customs House (Jianghaiguan), a customs house built in the 17th century. The third building (in the back) is the Radisson Blu Shanghai New World, the Shanghai branch of Radisson Blu, an upscale hotel branch. The fourth building is the Oriental Pearl Tower, a famous TV tower and distinct landmark. The fifth building is the Shanghai World Finance Tower, a skyscraper and the 9th tallest building in the world. The sixth building is the Shanghai Tower, a tall skyscraper and the second tallest building in the world.
- This is the first Architecture set to be based on a Chinese structure